Aquatic animal resources in Prehistoric Aegean, Greece
© Mylona; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 9 December 2013
Accepted: 9 January 2014
Published: 13 May 2014
This paper explores the early stages in the history of fishing in the Aegean Sea in Greece, and highlights its formative phases and its specific characteristics in different points in time. This is testified by various physical remains, such as fish bones, fishing tools, and representations in art, which are gathered in the course of archaeological research. The aquatic resources in the Aegean Sea have been exploited and managed for millennia by communities that lived near the water and often made a living from it. The earliest evidence for a systematic, intensive exploitation of marine resources in the Aegean Sea dates to the Mesolithic, eleven millennia ago. In the Neolithic period, the adoption of a sedentary, agro-pastoral way of life led to a reduction in the intensity of fishing and shellfish gathering. Its importance as an economic resource remained high only in certain regions of rich, eutrophic waters. In the Bronze Age, an era of social complexity and centralized economy, the exploitation of aquatic, mostly marine, resources became a complex, multi-faceted activity which involved subsistence, industry and ideology. The range of preferred fish and invertebrate species, the fishing technology, and the processing of fish and shellfish in order to produce elaborate foods or prestige items are all traceable aspects of the complex relationship between humans and the aquatic resources throughout the prehistory of fishing and shellfish gathering in the Aegean area. The broadening of collaboration between archaeology and physical sciences offers new means to explore these issues in a more thorough and nuanced manner.
KeywordsPrehistoric fishing Fish remains Molluscan remains Fish processing Archaeology of fishing Prehistoric aquatic resources
The aquatic resources of the Hellenic area have been systematically exploited by coastal communities that lived by the sea, the rivers and the lakes, for a very long period of time. This interaction begun at least as early as the 11th millennium BP (Before Present) and it lead to a wide range of fishing choices and strategies. In these one can trace adaptations to the local ecosystems but also a reflection of the interests and priorities of the fishing communities involved in the exploitation of these resources. Despite the observed variability there are certain constant features which survived through the millennia to the modern era. The range of fish and shellfish, fishing tools and processing methods are some of these features. This paper provides a short review of these issues in the context of prehistoric Aegean, a period in time when the basic features of the exploitation of aquatic resources were formulated.
Ancient fishing is explored through a multi-level approach by archaeology and history. The main categories of data for such an approach are the archaeological remains of aquatic resources and fishing tools as well as records in literature and representations in art. The aquatic animal remains, mostly fish bones, sea shells, crustaceans and coral skeletons, are identified using reference collections and relevant monographs; various features of these remains are recorded, particularly those that are pertinent to the animals’ exploitation by humans [1, 2]. Remains of fishing implements (most commonly their durable elements such as the bone or metal fishing hooks, the stone weights or the pumice floaters) are also recovered archaeologically . Records of aquatic animals in ancient texts, along with relevant representations in art provide further evidence on fishing related matters. They also illustrate an elusive aspect of the past, i.e. how people thought and felt about the aquatic resources and their harvesting . However, the exploitation of these resources and the particular choices made by the different communities in different times and locations, are governed not only by cultural rules and traditions but also by the restrictions imposed by the dynamics of the aquatic environments and the biology and ethology of the exploited organisms . Therefore, archaeological and historical research is supplemented by a range of natural sciences, such as ichthyology, marine biology, chemistry, etc. It should be emphasized that such a combined approach, effective as it may be, does not provide a snapshot of the available aquatic resources at that period but it reflects the resources that were accessed by humans, of those elements that were used by people as food, raw material and/or symbols.
The abundance of marine resources in the Mesolithic
The earliest evidence for the systematic, complex and precisely orchestrated exploitation of aquatic resources dates to the 11th millennium BP, at the end of an era of rapid environmental changes and the beginning of the Holocene. This period is conventionally called the Mesolithic. It is the era of the opening of the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, which along with the increased flow of the large rivers in Northern Greece led to increased productivity of the Aegean Sea [6–8]. Culturally the Aegean shores were sparsely populated by communities of hunters, gatherers, and fishermen [9, 10]. There is unequivocal evidence that Mesolithic people, were able to cross considerable distances between the mainland and the Aegean islands of the time [11, 12]. Three archaeological sites, two caves (Franchthi Cave in Argolid  and the Cave of Cyclops at Yioura in Sporades [14, 15]) and the open air site of Maroulas on Kythnos  provide ample evidence for fishing during the early Holocene. Excavation at these sites produced thousands of fish bones and scales, as well as a large number of sea shells, marine mammal bones and sea bird bones. The ensuing discussion is based on data from a number of sites [17–29].
Fishing in lakes, rivers, and the sea in the Neolithic
The Mesolithic fishing bonanza, when marine aquatic resources were abundant and intensively exploited in coastal and near-coastal sites did not seem to continue in the following millennia. From the Neolithic period, between the 7th and the 4th millenium BC, after the adoption of agriculture and animal husbandry as the main economic modes throughout the Hellenic peninsula [34–37], the exploitation of aquatic resources, mostly the marine ones, diminishes. The contribution of fish and aquatic molluscs to the Neolithic diet never superseded that of the domestic animals (i.e. the cattle, the pig and the ovicaprids).
Bronze Age exploitation of the aquatic resources as a multi-level act
The migratory fish, which seasonally approach the coast and are traditionally caught by stationary traps that are linked to the coast , are less often caught in the southern Aegean than in the north. They are not altogether an untapped resource however. The wall paintings of the “Little Fisherman” at Akrotiri, vividly illustrate the capture of dolphin fish (Corypahena hypurus) and of little tunnies (Euthynus aleteratus) or bullet tunnies (Auxis rochei) [58, 59]. At the same site, a second piece of evidence suggests that the migratory fish were exploited even if not in large scale; this is the unique finding of two slices of tuna (Thunnus sp.) discovered in a frying pan. These were cooked in a makeshift kitchen, probably just hours before the catastrophic volcanic eruption occurred .
The special uses and the technologies involved in the exploitation of the marine molluscs and the elaborate processing of fish in the Bronze Age placed the sea and its creatures into spheres other than the dietary and the technological. These are the spheres of social competition and ideology.
The research on the exploitation of aquatic resources in antiquity was vastly enriched in the last decades by the collaboration of archaeology with biology and ecology. This rendered the physical remains of aquatic organisms, such as fish bones, sea shells, etc., eloquent testimonies of past fishing practices. Recent scientific developments open up more possibilities for collaboration between the archaeology of aquatic resources and the natural sciences. Molecular genetic analyses for identifying the remains of aquatic animals or their by-products e.g. [77, 78] and isotopic analysis e.g.  for exploring issues of provenance, diet, etc., are two such examples.
The exploration of the character of fishing and fishing products in the distant past reveals a picture which is both familiar and exotic. The sea, its organisms, the fishing tools and methods, the processing and consumption of aquatic foods are all very similar to what is known from Greece of the previous decades. The societies involved in fishing and consuming its products, however, were different on many aspects. A plethora of evidence suggests that the meanings given to these familiar activities were also different in those societies. Today, in this era of globalization, the relationship between the “common” and “familiar” on the one hand and the “different” and “strange” on the other, as these emerge from the study of fishing in the past, is particularly relevant.
DM is an archaeologist, who specializes in zoo-archaeology, with special emphasis in the analysis of remains of aquatic animals. She got her doctoral degree in Archaeology, University of Southampton (UK), and she wrote a thesis entitled “Fish-eating in Greece from the fifth century BC to the seventh century AD: a story of impoverished fisherman or luxurious fish banquets?”. Her research focuses on various aspects of maritime communities that lived around the Aegean and the Mediterranean Sea in the past. DM is currently holding a post-doctoral position at the Institute of Aegean Prehistory, Crete, analyzing assemblages of animal remains from archaeological sites that range in date from Mesolithic to Byzantine.
This paper was first conceived as a presentation for the 15th Pan-Hellenic Congress of Ichthyologists “Aquatic ecosystems: uses, impacts and management”, Thessaloniki, 10-13th of September 2013”. I would like to thank Prof. Dr. T.J. Abatzopoulos for encouraging its publication in expanded form in this journal. I would also like to thank Dr. Tania Devetzi and Prof. A. Sampson for their help accessing the illustrations from Akrotiri, Cave of Cyclops and Maroulas and Emeritus Professors P. Economides and N. Galanidou for their constructive comments on earlier drafts of this paper. The comments of two anonymous reviewers are greatly appreciated.
- Wheeler A, Jones AKG: Fishes (Cambridge manuals in archaeology). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1989.Google Scholar
- Claassen C: Shells (Cambridge manuals in archaeology). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1998.Google Scholar
- Powell J: Fishing in the Prehistoric Aegean. Jonsered: Paul Åström; 1996.Google Scholar
- Mylona D: Eating Fish in Greece from 500 BC to AD 700. A story of impoverished fishermen or lavish fish banquets?. Oxford: Archaeopress; 2008. [BAR International Series, vol.1754]Google Scholar
- Mylona D: Fishermen, fish and fish bones: where archaeology meets Ichthyology. Proceedings of the 10th Panhellenic Conference of Ichthyologists 2001. 10: 313–316Google Scholar
- Kraft JC, Belknap DF, Kayan I: Potentials of discovery of human occupation sites on the continental shelves and nearshore coastal zones. In Quaternary Coastlines and Marine Archaeology: towards the prehistory of land bridges and continental shelves. Edited by: Masters PM, Flemming NC. London: Academic Press; 1983:87–120.Google Scholar
- Jones GA, Gagnon AR: Radiocarbon chronology of the Black Sea sediments. Deep-Sea Res 1994, 41: 531–557. 10.1016/0967-0637(94)90094-9View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Aksu AE, Hiscott RN, Mudie PJ, Rochon A, Kaminski MA, Abrajano T, Yasar D: Persistent Holocene outflow from the Black Sea to the Eastern Mediterranean contradicts Noah's Flood Hypothesis. GSA Today 2002, 12: 4–10.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Galanidou N, Perlés C: The Greek Mesolithic. Problems and perspectives. London: Britisch School at Athens; 2003. [BSA Studies, vol. 10]Google Scholar
- Galanidou N: Mesolithic cave use in Greece and the mosaic of human communities. J Medit Archaeology 2011, 24: 219–242.Google Scholar
- Renfrew C, Aspinall A: Aegean obsidian and Franchthi cave. In Les industries lithiques taillées de Franchthi (Argolide, Grèce). Les industries du Mésolithique et du Néolithique initial, Excavations at Franchthi Cave, fasc 5. Edited by: Perlés C. Bloomington: Indiana University Press; 1990:257–270.Google Scholar
- Tzalas H: On the obsidian trail. With a papyrus craft in the Cyclades. In Trophis III. 3rd International Symposium on Ship Construction in Antiquity: 1989. Athens: Athens Hellenic Institute for the Preservation of Nautical Traditions; 1995:441–469.Google Scholar
- Perlés C: The Mesolithic at Franchthi: an overview of the Data and Problems. In The Greek Mesolithic. Problems and perspective. Edited by: Galanidou N, Perlés C. London: British School at Athens; 2003:79–88. [BSA Studies, vol. 10]Google Scholar
- Sampson A: The Cave of the Cyclops: Mesolithic and Neolithic networks in the Northern Aegean, Greece. Vol. 1, intra-site analysis, local Industries, and regional site distribution. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press; 2008. [Prehistory Monographs, vol. 21]Google Scholar
- Sampson A: The Cave of the Cyclops: Mesolithic and Neolithic networks in the Northern Aegean, Greece. Vol. I1, bone tool industries, dietary resources and palaeo-environment, and archaeo-metrical studies. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press; 2011. [Prehistory Monographs, vol. 31]Google Scholar
- Sampson A, Kaczanowska M, Kozlowski JK: The Prehistory of the Island of Kythnos (Cyclades, Greece) and the Mesolithic Settlement at Maroulas. Kraków: The Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences – The University of Aegean; 2010.Google Scholar
- Payne S: Faunal change at Franchthi Cave from 20,000 B.C. – 3000 B.C. In Archaeozoological Studies. Edited by: Clason AT. Amsterdam: North-Holand Publishing; 1975:120–131.Google Scholar
- Payne S: Faunal evidence for environmental/climatic change at Franchthi Cave (Southern Argolid, Greece), 25,000 B.P. – 5000 B.P. Preliminary results. In Palaeo-climates, Palaeo-environments and Human Communities in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in Later Prehistory. Edited by: Bintliff JL, Van Zeist W. Oxford: Archaeopress; 1982:133–137. [BAR International Series 133]Google Scholar
- Rose M: Fishing at Franchthi Cave, Greece: changing environments and patterns of exploitation. OWAN 1995, 18: 21–26.Google Scholar
- Shackleton JC, Van Andel T: Prehistoric shore environments, shellfish availability and shellfish gathering at Franchthi, Greece. Geoarchaeology 1986,1(2):127–143. 10.1002/gea.3340010202View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shackleton JC, Shackleton NJ, Deith MR: Marine Molluscan Remains from Franchthi Cave. Excavations at Franchthi Cave, fasc. 4. Bloomington: Indiana University Press; 1988.Google Scholar
- Karali L: The seashells of Maroulas, Kythnos. In The Prehistory of the Island of Kythnos (Cyclades, Greece) and the Mesolithic Settlement at Maroulas. Edited by: Sampson A, Kaczanowska M, Kozlowski JK. Kraków: The Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences - The University of Aegean; 2010:147–150.Google Scholar
- Karali L: Malacological material. In The Cave of Cyclops. Mesolithic and Neolithic networks in the Northern Aegean, Greece, vol. II. Bone tool industry, dietary resources and the paleo-environmenal and archaeo-metrical studies. Edited by: Sampson A. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press; 2011:267–288. [Prehistory Monographs, vol. 31]Google Scholar
- Powell J: Fishing in the Mesolithic and Neolithic – the Cave of Cyclops, Youra. In Zooarchaeology in Greece: Recent Advances. Edited by: Kotjabopoulou E, Hamilakis Y, Halstead P, Gamble C, Elefanti P. London: British School at Athens; 2003:75–84. [BSA Studies, vol. 9]Google Scholar
- Powell J: Non-Vertebral Fish Bones. In The Cave of the Cyclops: Mesolithic and Neolithic Networks in the Northern Aegean, Greece II: Bone Tool Industries, Dietary Resources and the Paleo-environment, and Archaeo-metrical Studies. Edited by: Sampson A. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press; 2011:151–236. [Prehistory Monographs, vol. 31]Google Scholar
- Mylona D: Archaeological fish remains in Greece: general trends of the research and a gazetteer of sites. In Zooarchaeology in Greece: Recent Advances. Edited by: Kotzabopoulou E, Hamilakis Y, Halstead P, Gamble C, Elefanti P. London: British School at Athens; 2003:193–200. [BSA Studies, vol. 9]Google Scholar
- Mylona D: Mesolithic Fishers at Maroulas Kythnos. The fish bones. In The Prehistory of the Island of Kythnos (Cyclades, Greece) and the Mesolithic Settlement at Maroulas. Edited by: Sampson A, Kaczanowska M, Kozlowski JK. Kraków: The Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences – The University of Aegean; 2010:151–162.Google Scholar
- Mylona D: Fish vertebrae. In The Cave of Cyclops. Mesolithic and Neolithic networks in the Northern Aegean, Greece, vol. II. Bone tool industry, dietary resources and the paleo-environmenal and archaeo-metrical studies. Edited by: Sampson A. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press; 2011:237–268. [Prehistory Monographs, vol. 31]Google Scholar
- Trantalidou K: From Mesolithic fishermen and bird hunters to Neolithic goat herders: the mammal and bird bone assemblages. In The Cave of the Cyclops: Mesolithic and Neolithic Networks in the Northern Aegean, Greece, vol. II. Bone tool industries, dietary resources and the paleo-environment, and archaeo-metrical studies. Edited by: Sampson A. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press; 2011:53–149. [Prehistory Monographs, vol. 31]Google Scholar
- Moundrea–Agrafioti A: The Mesolithic and Neolithic bone implements. In The Cave of Cyclops. Mesolithic and Neolithic networks in the Northern Aegean, Greece, vol. II. Bone tool industry, dietary resources and the paleo-environmenal and archaeo-metrical studies. Edited by: Sampson A. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press; 2011:3–52. [Prehistory Monographs, vol. 31]Google Scholar
- Thomas KD: Prehistoric coastal ecologies: a view from outside Franchthi Cave, Greece. Geoarchaeology 1987,2(3):231–240. 10.1002/gea.3340020305View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Desse J, Desse-Berset N: Strategies de peche au 8 e millinnaire: les poissons de Cap Andreas-Kastros (Chypre). In Fouilles Recentes a Khirokitia (Chypre) 1988–1991. Edited by: Le Brun A. Paris: Édition Reserches sur les Civilisations, ADPF; 1994:335–360.Google Scholar
- Cassoli PF, Tagliacozzo A: Lo sfruttamento delle risorse marine tra il Mesolitico e il Neolitico alla Grotta dell’Uzzo, Trapani, (Sicilia). In Atti del 1° Convegno nazionale di archeozoologia, Rovigo-Accademia dei Concordi, 5–7 marzo 1993. Rovigo: Centro polesano di studi storici, archeologici ed etnografici; 1995:157–169. [Padusa, vol. 1]Google Scholar
- Demoule J-P, Perlès C: The Greek Neolithic: a new review. J World Prehist 1993,7(4):355–416. 10.1007/BF00997801View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Papathanasopoulos GA: Neolithic Culture in Greec. Athens: Museum of Cycladic Art; 1996.Google Scholar
- Andreou S, Fotiadis M, Kotsakis K: Review of Aegean Prehistory V: The Neolithic and Bronze Age of Northern Greece. In Aegean Prehistory: A review. Edited by: Cullen T. Boston: Archaeological Institute of America; 2001:259–327.Google Scholar
- Perlès C: The Early Neolithic in Greece. The first farming communities in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2001.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Albatzi K: Fishing in a lakeside settlement. In Dispilio. 7500 Years Later. Edited by: Hourmouziadis GH. Thessaloniki: University Studio Press; 2002:135–144. [in Greek]Google Scholar
- Theodoropoulou T: Man and lake: Fishers and fishing in Prehistoric Dispilio. Anaskamma 2008, 2: 25–45. [in Greek]Google Scholar
- Theodoropoulou T, Stratouli G: Fish bones vs. fishhooks: a comparative study from the Neolithic lakeside settlement of Dispilio, Greece. In Fishes–Culture–Environment through Archaeoichthyology, Ethnography and History. Edited by: Makowiecki D, Hamilton-Dyer S, Riddler I, Trzaska-Nartowski N, Makohonienko M. Bogucki: Poznań; 2009:126–130. [Środowisko i kultura, vol. 7]Google Scholar
- Veropoulidou R: Lake shellfish and terrestrial snails from the Neolithic Dispilio, Kastoria. Anaskama 2009, 3: 13–26. [in Greek]Google Scholar
- Mylona D: Animal bones from the Late Neolithic strata at Kryoneri, Serres: a preliminary report. AEMTH 2000, 11: 523–538.Google Scholar
- Theodoropoulou T: L’exploitation des faunes aquatiques en Égée septentrionale aux périodes pré- et Protohistoriques. Paris: Diss. Université de Sorbonne I, Panthéon- Sorbonne; 2007.Google Scholar
- Schwartz C: Appendix II. Agios Petros: the vertebrate and molluscan fauna, final report. In Agios Petros. A Neolithic site in the northern Sporades. Edited by: Efstratiou N. Oxford: Archaeopress; 1985:151–160. [BAR International Series 241]Google Scholar
- Pappa M, Halstead P, Kotsakis K, Bogaard A, Fraser R, Isaakidou V, Mainland I, Mylona D, Skourtopoulou K, Triantaphyllou S, Tsoraki C, Urem-Kotsou D, Valamoti S-M, Veropoulidou R: The Neolithic site of Makriyalos, Northern Greece: reconstruction of social and economic structure of the settlement through comparative study of the finds. In Subsistence, Economy and Society in the Greek World: improving the integration of archaeology and science. Edited by: Voutsaki S, Valamoti SM. Leuven: Peeters; 2013:77–88.Google Scholar
- Veropoulidou R: Molluscan Remains from Settlements along the Gulf of Thermaicos. Reconstructing shellfish consumption in the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. PhD Thesis. Thessalonike: University of Thessaloniki; 2011.Google Scholar
- Willms C: Neolithischer Spondylusschmuck. Hundert Jahre Forschung. Germania 1985, 63: 331–343.Google Scholar
- Ifantidis F, Nikolaidou M: Spondylus in Prehistory: New aata and approaches: Contributions to the Archaeology of Shell Technologies. Oxford: Archaeopress; 2011. BAR International Series 2216Google Scholar
- Bajnóczi B, Schöll-Barna G, Kalicz N, Siklósi Z, Hourmouziadis G, Ifantidis F, Kyparissi-Apostoloka A, Pappa M, Veropoulidou R, Ziota C: Tracing the source of Late Neolithic Spondylus shell ornaments by stable isotope geochemistry and cathodoluminescence microscopy. J Archaeol Sci 2012,40(2):874–882.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gill M: Some observations on representations of marine animals in Minoan art, and their identification. BCH 1985,11(1):63–81. 10.3406/bch.1985.5270View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Müller W: Kretische Tongefäße mit Meeresdekor. Entwicklung und Stellung innerhalb der feinen Keramik von Spätminoisch IB auf Kreta. Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag; 1997.Google Scholar
- Vavouranakis G: The Seascape in Aegean Prehistory. Athens: Aarhus Universitetsforlag; 2011.Google Scholar
- Mylona D: Fish remains from Well 576 and Well 605. In Palaikastro: Two Late Minoan Wells. Edited by: Sackett H, MacGillivray A, Driessen J. Athens: The British School at Athens; 2007:217–220. [BSA Studies, vol. 43]Google Scholar
- Rose JM: With Line and Glittering Bronze Hook: Fishing in the Aegean Bronze Age, Ph.D dissertation. Bloomington: Indiana University; 1994.Google Scholar
- Mylona D: Fish remains. In Mochlos IC, Period III, Neopalatial Remains on the Coast: the Artisans' Quarter and the Chalinomouri Farmhouse. Edited by: Soles J, Davaras C. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press; 2004:121–125. [Prehistory Monographs, vol. 9]Google Scholar
- Rose M: The fish bones. In Pseira I. The Minoan buildings on the west side of Area A. Edited by: Betancourt PP, Davaras C, Banou E. Philadelphia: University Museum, University of Pennsylvania; 1998:145–148. [University Museum Monograph, vol. 90]Google Scholar
- Reese DS, Rose MJ, Payne S: The Minoan fauna. In Kommos I. The Kommos region and houses of the Minoan town. Part 1. Edited by: Shaw JW, Shaw MC. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 1995:163–290.Google Scholar
- Economidis PS: The ‘little fisherman’ and the fish he holds. In International Symposium the Wall Paintings of Thera, Thera 30th August-4th September 1997. Edited by: Sherrat S. London: Thera Foundation; 2000:555–562.Google Scholar
- Mylona D: Representations of fish and fishermen on the Thera Wall Paintings in light of the fish bone evidence. In International Symposium the Wall Paintings of Thera, Thera 30th August-4th September 1997. Edited by: Sherratt S. London: Thera Foundation; 2000:561–567.Google Scholar
- Birtacha K, Devetzi A, Mylona D, Sarpaki A, Trantalidou K: The cooking installations in Late Cycladic IA Akrotiri on Thera: The case of the kitchen in Pillar Pit 65. Preliminary report. In Όρίζων. A Colloquium on the prehistory of the Cyclades, Cambridge, 25th-28th March 2004. Edited by: Brodie NJ, Doole J, Gavalas G, Renfrew C. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research; 2008:349–375.Google Scholar
- Moulherat C, Spantidaki Y, Tzachili I: Textiles, nets, strings and threads from Akrotiri Thera. Arachne 2004, 2: 15–19. [in Greek]Google Scholar
- Carter T: The stone implements. In Mochlos IC. Period III. Neopalatial Settlement on the Coast. The Artisan’s Quarter and the Farmhouse at Chalinomouri. The Small Finds. Edited by: Soles J, Davaras C. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press; 2004:61–107. [Prehistory Monographs, vol. 9]Google Scholar
- Reese DS: Palaikastro shells and Bronze Age purple-dye production in the Mediterranean Basin. BSA 1987, 201–206.Google Scholar
- Brogan MT, Sofianou C, Morrison JE, Mylona D, Margariti E: Living off the fruits of the sea: new evidence for dining at Papadiokambos, Crete. In Subsistence, Economy and Society in the Greek World: improving the integration of archaeology and science. Edited by: Voutsaki S, Valamoti SM. Leuven: Peeters; 2013:187–204.Google Scholar
- Reese DS: The fauna. In Mochlos IC. Period III. Neopalatial settlement on the coast: The Artisans’ Quarter and the farmhouse at Chalinomouri: The small finds. Edited by: Soles JS, Davaras C. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press; 2004:118–121. [Prehistory Monographs, vol. 9]Google Scholar
- Reese DS: The faunal remains. In Pseira I. The Minoan Buildings on the west side of Area A. Edited by: Betancourt P, Davaras C. Philadelphia: University Museum, University of Pennsylvania; 1995:11. 45–46, 56–57, 83 [University Museum Monograph 90]Google Scholar
- Reese DS: The faunal remains. In Pseira III. The Plateia Buildings. Edited by: Floyd RC, Betancourt PP, Davaras C. Philadelphia: University Museum, University of Pennsylvania; 1998:131–144. [University Museum Monograph 102]Google Scholar
- Reese DA: faunal remains. In Pseira IV. Minoan Buildings in Areas B, C, C, and F. Edited by: Betancourt PP, Davaras C. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press; 1999:36–37. 80, 99, 136, 162–164, 184, 282–283 [University Museum Monograph 105]Google Scholar
- Reese DS: The marine invertebrates. In Kommos I: The Kommos Region and Houses of the Minoan Town. Edited by: Shaw JW, Shaw MC. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 1995:240–273.Google Scholar
- Ruscillo D: Faunal remains and murex dye production. In Kommos V: The Monumental Minoan Buildings at Kommos. Edited by: Shaw MC, Shaw JW. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2006:776–844.Google Scholar
- Ruscillo D: The faunal remains. In House X at Kommos. A Minoan mansion near the sea. Part 1. Architecture, stratigraphy and selected finds. Edited by: Shaw MC, Shaw JW. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press; 2012:93–116. [Prehistory Monographs, vol. 35]Google Scholar
- Karali L: Shells in Aegean Prehistory. Oxford: Archaeopress; 1999. [BAR International Series, vol. 761]Google Scholar
- Apostolakou S, Betancourt PH, Brogan TH, Mylona D, Sofianou CH: Tritons Revisited. In PHYSIS. Natural environment and human interaction in the prehistoric Aegean. Paris: 14th International Aegean Conference; 2014. in pressGoogle Scholar
- Brogan MT, Betancourt Ph P, Apostolakou V: The purple dye industry of Eastern Crete. In Kosmos. Jewellery, adornment and textiles in the Aegean Bronze Age. Proceedings of the 13th International Aegean Conference/13e Rencontre égéenne internationale, University of Copenhagen, Danish National Research Foundation's Centre for Textile Research, 21–26 April 2010. Edited by: Nosch ML, Laffineur R. Leuven: Peeters; 2012:187–192.Google Scholar
- Mylona D: Fish and seafood consumption in the Aegean: variations on a theme. In The Inland Seas: towards an ecohistory of the Mediterranean. Edited by: Bekker-Nielsen T, Gertwagen R. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Publishers; 2014. in pressGoogle Scholar
- Curtis IR: Garum and Salsamenta. Production and commerce. Leiden: Studies in Medical History, Brill Academic Publications; 1991.Google Scholar
- Dallongeville S, Garnier N, Casasola DB, Bonifay M, Rolando C, Tokarski C: Dealing with the identification of protein species in ancient amphorae. Anal Bioanal Chem 2011,399(9):3053–3063. 10.1007/s00216-010-4218-2PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dallongeville S, Garnier N, Bernal Casasola D, Bonifa M, Rolando C, Tokarski C: Identification of Animal Species from Remains in Ancient Amphorae by Proteomics. In Hornos, Talleres y Focus de Produccion Alfarera en Hispania, vol. II. Edited by: Bustamante JM, Dνaz JJ, Saez AM. Cádiz: Publicaciones de la Universidad de Cádiz; 2013:475–487.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.