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Table 3 Stable isotopes of autotrophic sources (mean  ‰ ± standard deviation) in Pangani estuary

From: Differences in trophic resources and niches of two juvenile predatory species in three Pangani estuarine zones, Tanzania: stomach contents and stable isotope approaches

Primary food source Upper estuarine zone Middle estuarine zone Lower estuarine zone
δ13C δ15N δ13C δ15N δ13C δ15N
Sediment POM − 23.9 ± 0.7 (3) 6.8 ± 0.2 (3) − 23.3 ± 0.5 (3) 6.9 ± 0.2 (3) − 22.9 ± 0.7 (3) 6.4 ± 0.3 (3)
Periphyton − 23.4 ± 0.3 (3) 5.4 ± 0.4 (3) − 22.75 (2) 6.2 (2) − 19.9 (2) 6.9 (2)
Microphytobenthos − 20.6 (1) 3.7 (1) − 20.5 (1) 3.6 (1) − 20.2 (1) 4.0 (1)
Filamentous green algae − 22.0 (2) 6.0 (2) − 21.6 ± 1.4 (4) 6.1 ± 0.3 (4)
Macro-algae (Sargassum sp.) − 16.8 (2) 3.0 (2)
Sea grass − 13.7 ± 1.0 (3) 4.0 ± 0.2 (3)
C4 grasses − 12.9 ± 0.3 (5) 5.2 ± 1.2 (5)
C3 Mangrove plant − 28.4 ± 1.2 (8) 5.4 ± 1.8 (8) − 28.7 ± 0.8 (7) 3.9 ± 1.9 (7)
C3 plant − 28.1 ± 1.3 (5) 6.5 ± 2.5 (5) − 27.9 (1) 5.71 (1)
  1. Sample size = n for each autotrophic group is indicated in brackets. When n < 3 standard deviation values are not given
  2. δ13C Carbon isotope ratio, δ15N nitrogen stable isotope ratio, sPOM surface sediment particulate organic matter