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Table 4 Stable isotopes of invertebrates and fish studied (mean  ‰ ± standard deviation) in the Pangani estuary

From: Differences in trophic resources and niches of two juvenile predatory species in three Pangani estuarine zones, Tanzania: stomach contents and stable isotope approaches

Taxa Upper estuarine zone Middle estuarine zone Lower estuarine zone
δ13C δ15N δ13C δ15N δ13C δ15N
Bivalves − 18.1 ± 1.2 (5) 8.9 ± 0.5 (5) − 16.8 ± 0.3 (4) 8.6 ± 0.5 (4)
Gastropods − 20.1 ± 2.3 (6) 7.0 ± 1.1 (6) − 18.2 ± 2.4 (3) 6.7 ± 0.3(3) − 17.3 (2) 6.4 (2)
Amphipods − 18.9 (2) 9.0 (2) − 18.1 (2) 10.0 (2)
Isopods − 20.9 (1) 8.5 (1) − 19.6 (1) 8.4 (1) − 18.4 (1) 7.8 (1)
Brachyura − 19.6 ± 1.9 (7) 10.2 ± 0.5 (7) − 18.6 ± 1.5 (9) 9.8 ± 0.8 (9) − 18.5 ± 1.7 (8) 9.8 ± 0.6 (8)
Penaid and palaemonid shrimps − 20.2 ± 1.1 (6) 10.5 ± 0.7 (6) − 20.7 ± 0.8 (4) 10.6 ± 0.4 (4) − 18.9 ± 0.5 (5) 10.4 ± 0.6 (5)
Clupeids − 17.8 ± 0.6 (19) 10.8 ± 0.4 (19) − 17.8 ± 0.5 (20) 11.1 ± 0.7 (20) − 17.6 ± 0.5 (20) 10.9 ± 0.5 (20)
Mugilids − 23.2 ± 0.7 (20) 13.0 ± 0.5 (20) − 22.8 ± 1.0 (22) 12.8 ± 0.7 (22) − 22.3 ± 0.8 (22) 12.4 ± 0.8 (22)
C. chrysophrys − 19.7 ± 0.9 (19)a,* 13.5 ± 0.5 (19)a,* − 19.3 ± 1.1 (20)ab,* 13.5 ± 0.5 (20)a,* − 18.9 ± 1.1 (19)b,* 13.3 ± 0.5 (19)a,*
E. malabaricus − 19.1 ± 1.0 (21)a,* 14.0 ± 0.9 (21)a,** − 18.8 ± 0.8 (19)a,* 13.9 ± 0.6 (19)a,** − 17.5 ± 0.6 (20)b,** 13.9 ± 0.4 (20)a,**
  1. δ13C Carbon isotope ratio, δ15N nitrogen stable isotope ratio
  2. a and b indicate significant differences revealed by ANOVA for each species across the sampling zones; * and ** indicate interspecific significant differences revealed by ANOVA. Sample size = n are given in brackets. When n < 3 standard deviation values are not given