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Table 1 Irrigation protocols. E. faecalis counts counts before and after instrumentation (mean ± standard deviation)

From: Antimicrobial residual effects of irrigation regimens with maleic acid in infected root canals

Final irrigating solutions Short-term Long-term Paired comparison **
CFUs × 10 3 of E. faecalis Grown samples at 60 days
Before instrumentation * After instrumentation Number and % of grown samples Minimum Maximum
Group 1: 2.5% NaOCl 88 ± 69.07 0 12 100 3 20 a
Group 2: 7% MA 106 ± 135.6 0 11 91.7 5 >60 b
Group 3: 7% MA + 0.2% CTR 119 ± 156.1 0 7 58.3 5 >60 b,c
Group 4: 7% MA + 2% CHX 119.4 ± 154.5 0 5 41.7 24 >60 c,d
Group 5: 7% MA + 0.2% CTR +2% CHX 93.1 ± 84.1 0 4 33.3 9 >60 c,d
Control group: 0.9% Saline solution+ 88 ± 69.07 0.004 ± 0.007 - - - -
  1. Number of grownsamples at 60 days. Median of the day of regrowth. n = 12 per group.
  2. NaOCl: sodium hypochlorite. MA: maleic acid; CTR: cetrimide; CHX: chlorhexidine.
  3. +No long-term analysis was performed because all samples grew on first day.
  4. *Before instrumentation there was the same E. faecalis level in all groups determined by an ANOVA test previously subjecting data to a Poisson normalization transformation: √(basal data + 3/8) (p = 0.978).
  5. **The same letter shows differences that were not statistically significant determined by the Log-Rank test (statistical significance level was set at p< 0.05). p values of pair by pair comparisons: group 1 vs group 2: p = 0.015, group 1 vs group 3: p = 0.010, group 1 vs group 4: p< 0.001, group 1 vs group 5, p< 0.001, group 2 vs group 3: p = 0.247, group 2 vs group 4: p = 0.005, group 2 vs group 5: p = 0.005, group 3 vs group 4: p = 0.193, group 3 vs group 5: p = 0.157, group 4 vs group 5: p = 0.928.