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Table 1 An outline of the prospective clinical applications of salivary proteomics in a large spectrum of human diseases

From: Saliva proteomics updates in biomedicine

DiseaseReference nos.Proteins in the textResults
Oral diseases
 Periodontitis[39]MMP-8Correlation with the severity of periodontitis
 Periodontitis[40]Apolipoprotein HDiscriminatory factor for chronic and aggressive periodontitis
 Periodontitis[41]Trappin-2 and cytokine IL-1βAnti-protease/proinflammatory cytokine imbalance
 Periodontitis[42]S100A8 and S100A9Candidate biomarkers for periodontitis
 Periodontitis[43]ANXA1Potential early biomarker for gingival inflammation during pregnancy
 Periodontitis[44]HGFPositive correlation with periodontitis progression and smoking habits, and monitoring response to therapy
 Periodontitis[45]VIP and NPYPotential gender-specific salivary biomarkers for periodontitis
Oral cancer
 OSCC[49]Complement proteins, CFB, C3, C4BPredictive biomarkers related to risk of development OSCC
 OSCC[49]SERPINA1 and LRG1Predictive biomarkers related to risk of development OSCC
 OSCC[50]SERPINA1, CFH, FGAPotential salivary biomarkers for OSCC diagnosis
 OSCC[51]IARS, KARS, WARS, YARSElevated levels in tumour interstitial fluids
 OSCC[51]NID1Potential OSCC biomarker
 OSCC[53]SLPIDecreased in premalignant lesion and OSCC lesion tissues
 OSCC[54]SLC3A2, S100A2, IL1RNPotential OSCC biomarkers
 OSCC[55, 56, 58],IL8, IL1beta, ResistinPotential OSCC biomarkers
Other cancer types
 Gastric cancer[59]CSTB, TPI1, and DMBT1Discriminatory biomarkers in cancer cases
 Infiltrating ductal carcinoma[60]α2-macroglobulin and ceruloplasminUpregulated
Autoimmune diseases
 cGVHD[61]Lactotransferrin lactoperoxidaseReduced levels
 cGVHD[61]IL-1ra, cystatin BPotential diagnostic biomarkers
 Sjogren’s syndrome (SS)[62]MUC5B and MUC7Altered glycosylation and sulfation patterns
 Sjogren’s syndrome (SS)[64]Calcium-binding proteins, defence-response proteins, proteins involved in apoptotic regulation, stress- response proteins and cell motion- related proteinsIncreased in SS patients
 Sjogren’s syndrome (SS)[68]S100A8/A9Potential biomarkers for SS patients with lymphoma or at higher risk of lymphoma
 Sjogren’s syndrome (SS)[69]S100 proteinsPotential early biomarkers for primary SS
Other systemic diseases
 Systemic diseases and periodontitis[72]VisfatinPutative biomarker for both
 Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes[73]Ferritin, hepcidinPositive correlation between salivary and serum ferritin and low salivary hepcidin levels
 Multiple sclerosis[71]S-type cystatinsAltered glycosylation and oxidation levels
Infectious diseases
 Zika virus[75]Viral proteinsSaliva may be a repository for free Zika virus particles and infected cells
 Dengue virus[76]Anti-NS1 antibodiesDetected with comparable sensitivity in plasma and saliva
 HBV and HCV[77]C3, alpha(1)-acid and alpha(2)-acid glycoproteins, haptoglobin, serotransferrin, ceruloplasminPotential biomarkers
 HCC[77]Hemopexin, transthyretin, GADPH, alpha- enolase, and cystatin CTheir monitoring in saliva could substitute blood tests
Rare diseases
 SAPHO[80]S100A12Potential biomarker
 Wilson disease[81]S100 A9 and S100 A8Oxidation levels could monitor disease progression
Neurological diseases
 Autism spectrum disorders[2]Statherin, histatin 1, and acidic proline-rich proteinsDecreased levels
 Autism spectrum disorders[2]Prolactin-inducible protein, lactotransferrin, Ig kappa chain C region, Ig gamma- 1 chain C region, Ig lambda-2 chain C regions, neutrophil elastase, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor and DMBT1Elevated levels
  1. The seven more relevant pathways affected are depicted in a GENEMANIA network in Fig. 1 [90]