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Table 1 An outline of the prospective clinical applications of salivary proteomics in a large spectrum of human diseases

From: Saliva proteomics updates in biomedicine

Disease Reference nos. Proteins in the text Results
Oral diseases
 Periodontitis [39] MMP-8 Correlation with the severity of periodontitis
 Periodontitis [40] Apolipoprotein H Discriminatory factor for chronic and aggressive periodontitis
 Periodontitis [41] Trappin-2 and cytokine IL-1β Anti-protease/proinflammatory cytokine imbalance
 Periodontitis [42] S100A8 and S100A9 Candidate biomarkers for periodontitis
 Periodontitis [43] ANXA1 Potential early biomarker for gingival inflammation during pregnancy
 Periodontitis [44] HGF Positive correlation with periodontitis progression and smoking habits, and monitoring response to therapy
 Periodontitis [45] VIP and NPY Potential gender-specific salivary biomarkers for periodontitis
Oral cancer
 OSCC [49] Complement proteins, CFB, C3, C4B Predictive biomarkers related to risk of development OSCC
 OSCC [49] SERPINA1 and LRG1 Predictive biomarkers related to risk of development OSCC
 OSCC [50] SERPINA1, CFH, FGA Potential salivary biomarkers for OSCC diagnosis
 OSCC [51] IARS, KARS, WARS, YARS Elevated levels in tumour interstitial fluids
 OSCC [51] NID1 Potential OSCC biomarker
 OSCC [53] SLPI Decreased in premalignant lesion and OSCC lesion tissues
 OSCC [54] SLC3A2, S100A2, IL1RN Potential OSCC biomarkers
 OSCC [55, 56, 58], IL8, IL1beta, Resistin Potential OSCC biomarkers
Other cancer types
 Gastric cancer [59] CSTB, TPI1, and DMBT1 Discriminatory biomarkers in cancer cases
 Infiltrating ductal carcinoma [60] α2-macroglobulin and ceruloplasmin Upregulated
Autoimmune diseases
 cGVHD [61] Lactotransferrin lactoperoxidase Reduced levels
 cGVHD [61] IL-1ra, cystatin B Potential diagnostic biomarkers
 Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) [62] MUC5B and MUC7 Altered glycosylation and sulfation patterns
 Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) [64] Calcium-binding proteins, defence-response proteins, proteins involved in apoptotic regulation, stress- response proteins and cell motion- related proteins Increased in SS patients
 Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) [68] S100A8/A9 Potential biomarkers for SS patients with lymphoma or at higher risk of lymphoma
 Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) [69] S100 proteins Potential early biomarkers for primary SS
Other systemic diseases
 Systemic diseases and periodontitis [72] Visfatin Putative biomarker for both
 Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes [73] Ferritin, hepcidin Positive correlation between salivary and serum ferritin and low salivary hepcidin levels
 Multiple sclerosis [71] S-type cystatins Altered glycosylation and oxidation levels
Infectious diseases
 Zika virus [75] Viral proteins Saliva may be a repository for free Zika virus particles and infected cells
 Dengue virus [76] Anti-NS1 antibodies Detected with comparable sensitivity in plasma and saliva
 HBV and HCV [77] C3, alpha(1)-acid and alpha(2)-acid glycoproteins, haptoglobin, serotransferrin, ceruloplasmin Potential biomarkers
 HCC [77] Hemopexin, transthyretin, GADPH, alpha- enolase, and cystatin C Their monitoring in saliva could substitute blood tests
Rare diseases
 SAPHO [80] S100A12 Potential biomarker
 Wilson disease [81] S100 A9 and S100 A8 Oxidation levels could monitor disease progression
Neurological diseases
 Autism spectrum disorders [2] Statherin, histatin 1, and acidic proline-rich proteins Decreased levels
 Autism spectrum disorders [2] Prolactin-inducible protein, lactotransferrin, Ig kappa chain C region, Ig gamma- 1 chain C region, Ig lambda-2 chain C regions, neutrophil elastase, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor and DMBT1 Elevated levels
  1. The seven more relevant pathways affected are depicted in a GENEMANIA network in Fig. 1 [90]