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Table 1 Differential diagnosis of ZIKV infection includes various viral diseases with similar signs and symptoms as ZIKV infection [49]

From: A review on Zika virus outbreak, epidemiology, transmission and infection dynamics

NoViral diseasesSimilarities with Zika virusDissimilarities with Zika virusDiagnostic test
1Dengue feverHigh fever, severe muscle pain, and headache and may also be associated with hemorrhageNot associated with conjunctivitisSerology
2ChikungunyaHigh fever and intense joint pain affecting the hands, feet, knees, and backNot associated with conjunctivitisSerology
3ParvovirusAcute and symmetric arthritis or arthralgiaRash may or may not be presentSerology
4RubellaLow-grade fever, Macular rash, arthritis, lymphadenopathyNot associated with conjunctivitis, coryza is not present in ZIKV infectionSerology
5MeaslesFever, cough, conjunctivitis, and lymphadenitis. generalized rashSore throat and coryza are not present in ZIKV infectionSerology
6LeptospirosisFever, rigors, myalgia, conjunctival suffusion, headache, arthralgia Distinguished from ZIKV infection by the presence of jaundiceSerology
7MalariaFever, malaise, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, myalgiaDot associated with conjunctivitisVisualization of parasites on peripheral smear
8Rickettsial infectionAfrican tick bite fever and relapsing fever. headache, fever, myalgia, regional lymphadenopathy, generalized rash Not associated with conjunctivitisDirect smear and polymerase chain reaction