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Table 1 Differential diagnosis of ZIKV infection includes various viral diseases with similar signs and symptoms as ZIKV infection [49]

From: A review on Zika virus outbreak, epidemiology, transmission and infection dynamics

No Viral diseases Similarities with Zika virus Dissimilarities with Zika virus Diagnostic test
1 Dengue fever High fever, severe muscle pain, and headache and may also be associated with hemorrhage Not associated with conjunctivitis Serology
2 Chikungunya High fever and intense joint pain affecting the hands, feet, knees, and back Not associated with conjunctivitis Serology
3 Parvovirus Acute and symmetric arthritis or arthralgia Rash may or may not be present Serology
4 Rubella Low-grade fever, Macular rash, arthritis, lymphadenopathy Not associated with conjunctivitis, coryza is not present in ZIKV infection Serology
5 Measles Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, and lymphadenitis. generalized rash Sore throat and coryza are not present in ZIKV infection Serology
6 Leptospirosis Fever, rigors, myalgia, conjunctival suffusion, headache, arthralgia  Distinguished from ZIKV infection by the presence of jaundice Serology
7 Malaria Fever, malaise, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, myalgia Dot associated with conjunctivitis Visualization of parasites on peripheral smear
8 Rickettsial infection African tick bite fever and relapsing fever. headache, fever, myalgia, regional lymphadenopathy, generalized rash  Not associated with conjunctivitis Direct smear and polymerase chain reaction